William Carey

 

This article, written by an Indian lady, Ruth Mangalwadi, shows the breadth of William Carey’s missionary ministry.

William Carey

  • was the botanist who discovered ‘Carey herbacea’ In the Jungles of the Himalayan foothills, an Indian variety of Eucalyptus now bearing his name.
  • was the founder of the Agri-Horicultural Society in the 1820’s. 30 years before the Royal Agricultural Society was established In England. He did a systematic survey of agriculture In India, wrote for agriculture reform in Asiatic Researches, and exposed the evils of the Indigo cultivation system two generations before It collapsed. He did this because he was horrified to see 60% of India had been allowed to become an uncultivated Jungle abandoned to wild beast and serpents.
  • was the first to write essays on forestry In India 50 years before the government made Its first attempt towards forest conservation. Believing that God had made man responsible for the earth, he both practised and vigorously advocated the cultivation of timber, advising on how to plant trees for environmental, agricultural and commercial purposes.
  • was the publisher of the first books on science and natural history in India, because he believed the Biblical view ‘All thy works praise Thee, O Lord’. Nature was declared ‘good’ by the Creator. it Is not ‘maya’ (Illusion) to be shunned. Carey frequently lectured on science and tried to inject a basic scientific presupposition Into the Indian mind that even lowly insects are not ‘souls In bondage’ but ‘creatures worthy of our attention’.
  • was the father of the printing technology In India, building the nation’s largest press. Most printers had to buy their fonts from his mission press at Serampore.
  • was the first to make indigenous paper for the publishing industry.
  • established the first newspaper ever printed in any Oriental language, because of his belief that ‘above all forms of truth and faith, Christianity seeks free discussion’. His English-language Journal, ‘Friend of India’, was the force that gave birth to the Social Reform Movement In India in the first half of the 19th century.
  • was the first man to translate and publish great Indian religious classics into English. He transformed Bengali -considered ‘fit only for demons and women’ – Into the foremost literary language of India. He wrote gospel ballads In Bengali, to bring the Hindu love of musical recitations to the service of his Lord. He also wrote the first Sanskrit dictionary for scholars.
  • began dozens of schools for Indian children . girls and boys – of all castes and launched the first college in Asia at Serampore, near Calcutta. He wanted to develop the Indian mind and liberate it from the darkness of superstition.
  • was a British shoemaker who became a professor of Bengali, Sanskrit and Marathi at the Fort William College in Calcutta where the civil servants were trained.
  • introduced the study of astronomy into the sub-continent because he cared deeply about such destructive cultural ramifications of astrology as fatalism, superstitious fears, and the Indian inability to organise and manage time. He did not believe that the heavenly bodies were deities that governed our lives, but were created to be signs or markers – dividing space Into north, south, east and west, and time into days, months, seasons and years. They made it possible for us to devise calendars, to study geography and history, to be free to rule instead of to be ruled by the stars.
  • pioneered lending libraries in the sub-continent In order to empower the Indian people to embrace Ideas that would generate freedom of mind. He wanted to encourage the creation of an Indigenous literature In the vernacular. He believed Indians needed to receive knowledge and wisdom from around the world, to catch up with other cultures, and made worldwide Information available through lending libraries.
  • was the first Englishman to introduce the steam engine to India, and encouraged Indian blacksmiths to make indigenous copies of his engine.
  • introduced the concept of a ‘savings bank’ to India, to fight the all-pervasive social evil of usury.
  • was the first campaigner for a humane treatment for leprosy patients, who were often buried or burned alive because of the belief that a violent end purified the body and ensured the transmigration into a healthy new existence, while natural death by disease resulted In tour successive births, and a fifth as a leper.
  • was the first to stand against the oppression of women, including practices like polygamy, female infanticide child-marriage, widow-burning (sati), euthanasia and forced female illiteracy – ‘religious sanctions’ virtually synonymous with Hinduism in the 18th and 19th centuries. While the British rulers accepted these social evils as irreversible and an Intrinsic part of India’s religious mores, Carey researched and published, and raised up a generation of civil servants who changed the laws.
  • was the father of the Indian Renaissance of the 19th and 20th centuries, challenging the grip which asceticism, untouchability, mysticism, the occult superstition, Idolatry, witchcraft and oppressive beliefs and practices had on the nation. His movement culminated In the birth of Indian nationalism and of India’s subsequent independence. His ‘this-worldly spirituality’, with a strong emphasis on Justice and love for fellow men, next to love for God, marked the turning point of Indian culture from a downward trend to an upward swing.
  • also happened to be the pioneer of the modern missionary movement of the West reaching out now to all parts of the world; the founder of the Protestant Church In India; and the translator or publisher of the Bible In forty Indian languages.
  • was an evangelist who used every available medium to illumine every dark facet of Indian life with the light of truth. He is the central character In the story of the modernisation of India.

Some guy, this Carey!

Biography

William Carey was born in the village of Paulerspury, 10 miles south of Northampton, on 17th August 1761. As a young man he became a shoemaker’s apprentice at Piddington. His discovery of a Greek New Testament commentary on the shoemaker’s shelf was the beginning of a career which led him to become one of the notable scholars of his day. He was converted at the age of 18 after long discussions with a fellow apprentice.

In 1779 Carey transferred his apprenticeship to Thomas Old of Hackleton where he met and married Dorothy Plackett on 10th June 1781. Along with others he started a Congregational church and being influenced by the Baptists was baptized in 1783 by John Ryland in the River Nene close to Doddridge’s church in Northampton.

The Careys knew grinding poverty for their early years together. Their first child died, and Carey was left almost bald after a serious illness. In 1785, they moved to Moulton where Carey became the schoolmaster. He taught himself several languages and later became the Baptist pastor in the village, while continuing as schoolmaster and shoemaker.

Carey was influenced by the lives of Wesley, Whitefield, Doddridge and Wilberforce and when reading a book by Captain Cook about the unreached peoples of the Pacific Islands, Carey heard the Macedonian call, ‘Come over and help us!’.

Following the Prayer Call of 1784, initiated by John Sutcliff, church leaders in the region established regular meetings to pray for revival and the spread of the Gospel. The fruit of this prayer led Carey, with the support of Andrew Fuller [Kettering], John Ryland [Northampton], John Sutcliff [Olney] and Reynold Hogg [Thrapston] to launch the Baptist Missionary Society in Kettering on 2nd October 1792.

In June 1793, Carey set sail for India with his wife and four children. He never returned to England.

William Carey is widely regarded today as the ‘father’ of the modern mission movement

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Carey’s Patch

 

Carey's PatchThe phrase describes the geographical area comprising Northamptonshire and the surrounding counties in which the Nations Team at Wellingborough is based and from which the gospel was launched to the ends of the earth with a fresh emphasis through William Carey just over 200 years ago.

is the theme of this series of simple leaflets that we have prepared to further strengthen the rising tide of prayer and action in Carey’s Patch.

Today, we are praying in faith for a move of God in our communities and churches tomorrow! How many of us realise or know of the ways and the people through whom God has moved in this area’s yesterdays?

“Isaac reopened the wells that had been dug in the time of his father Abraham” Gen 26v18

What God has done before, He can do again.

 We want to celebrate our heritage in Him by reflecting on the impact made on society in past generations through the translators, hymn-writers, teachers and emancipators raised up in this area.

Just over two hundred years ago, a major move of prayer in churches across Northamptonshire and the surrounding areas resulted in a deepening concern for the un-reached “ends of the earth”, the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society and the departure of William Carey and others for India. From this platform, the great Protestant mission movement from the UK and other western countries would develop.

Our team, now based in Wellingborough, within the area that we refer to as “Carey’s Patch”, have felt that with the passage of time the “wells” of prayer and missionary vision in the local church have become somewhat blocked. Equally strongly, we feel that their unblocking could in some way help facilitate the growth of the new mission movements now emerging in India and the other nations originally evangelised by Carey and those who came after him.

Much of our activity has been aimed at the re-opening of these spiritual wells locally, and within the last few years we have been involved with people from different churches particularly in helping develop new prayer groups and movements across the county.

Our desire is to see Carey’s Patch revived with a fresh passion for the un-reached, at home and abroad. We are pursuing two main goals: firstly to play our part in the spiritual revival of this area and secondly for its ‘live’ connection with the ends of the earth to be renewed.

“That day Isaac’s servants came to him and told him about the well they had dug. They said: ‘We’ve found water!’ He called it Shibah, and to this day the name of the town has been Beersheba.” Gen 26:32-33

The account in Genesis 26 of how Isaac re-opened the wells dug by his father Abraham, in the face of enemy opposition, was a foundation scripture when the Nations team was first formed in Earls Barton.

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Clipston Revival

 

July 10th 1800

An account & remarks of the revival in the congregation at Clipston derived from the Church Records.

Last year was most remarkable for the church. Zeal and service for God had declined. Everybody was dejected and dismayed. There was so much deadness, carnality and inattention that many of us were greatly discouraged, fearing our usefulness was finished.

Often some of us would talk about the unpromising state of the congregation and lament to see so little fruit arising from our labours. It was particularly affecting to behold the spirit and conduct of the youth. Many were brought up in church the children of pious parents. They attended church but were unimpressed, untouched and indifferent. Some were trifling and indecent in behaviour at church and disrespectful and rude.

The minister gave an annual address to them every year. However, their profligacy and profanity amidst so many ineffectual works for their spiritual improvement so disheartened him he could not face speaking to them. Such was the state of things amongst us we were sinking into deep despondency. Amidst all these discouragements however, there were those amongst us whose hearts trembled for the work of God, were fervent in prayer and joined in endeavours to promote the interests of true religion. We frequently set apart days for solemn prayer by the whole church, these times bought refreshment and comfort amidst our bondage. At such times we hoped we should live to see better days, and greater things than these.

During January 1800, one young man, John Gulliver, had for some time been under religious impressions, was now awakened by a deep sense of religion by the death of his mother

He became serious and fervent and stirred up others to a great diligence and fervency in the ways of God. Our monthly prayer meetings attendance grew, the conversation at those meetings was how to promote religion, the general state of the churches at home and abroad, and sharing what God was doing elsewhere. The attendance at prayer grew.

Two or three young people attending these meetings wanted to pray more often, they started a prayer meeting among themselves. Soon after these meetings began, accounts were received of revival happening elsewhere. This news caused the sparks which had been kindled in the bosom of a few to burst into a flame which spread from heart to heart.

The young people meeting for prayer now increased and outgrew the meeting place so they met elsewhere. They then began to meet every evening, the meeting became so well attended they started to meet in the church building.

It is very common with the young people to have several meetings of a more private nature. Late in the evenings after coming from public worship half a dozen of them will retire to one friend’s house and half a dozen to another for the purpose of sharing their thoughts and feelings more freely. Some times a few of them have met together in the vestry to pray at four o’clock in the morning for mutual prayer. At noon hour some of them retire into the fields and spend a little time in prayer and spiritual conversation before they return to the labours of the day.

We had not really rejoiced over this work due to our fears as to whether or not it was genuinely of God and many of the impressions false. However, we have had time for observation and have concluded that the work is of God. The work has not been accompanied by noise and excitement but with repentance and prayers.

Meeting for Prayer was the cause of this revival more than preaching, Preaching however has led many to inquire about the way of salvation. The youth Invited others to church meetings and many who came were deeply touched. In tears and weeping they have sought the way to Zion.

This work has effected a change among the youth in Clipston. Their behaviour is now mild and gentle. The streets during summer evenings were thronged with misbehaving idle youth, now they are silent and still. They walk together in groups praying and talking about religion.

The effect is mainly among the youth.

The Clipston congregation experienced considerable growth averaging 700 – 800 people in a service.

In 1803 a new church building was commissioned.

Pastor Sean Carter Clipston Baptist Church

In 1792 the leadership of Clipston Baptist Church reported how that Sutcliff’s reprint of Jonathan Edwards’ “Humble Attempt” had been a tremendous encouragement to them in the whole matter of praying for revival. The congregation decided to set aside 25th February 1795 in particular for prayer and fasting for revival in their locality.

Psalm 85:6

Will You not revive us again that your people may rejoice in you?

To pray for Revival implies decline, that as the covenant people of God we are not experiencing what we should be as the psalmist realised in this case.

Revival is from God!‘

will YOU not revive us again.’

It is the church and God walking together in covenant relationship which releases His power through us. When the church lacks the power of God for service and ministry, it is then God stirs us to pray the above prayer.

In our church record books there is such an occasion when the church had experienced much decline and staleness, yet in answer to public and private prayer –

God brought revival!

Let us learn the lessons here and seek God for similar today.

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Download our leaflets

 

All of the material on this site is from our range of information leaflets that are freely available for non-commercial purposes.  You can download any of the leaflets from here.  Right click on the Icon and “Save Target As…”

You will require a free PDF reader to view these files.

Carey’s Patch

William Carey

The Moravians

Philip Doddridge

Clipston Revival

Prayer Call of 1784

John Sutcliff

The Puritan influence in Northants

All these files are less than 70kB so should download quickly.

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John Sutcliff

 

People readily recall the name of William Carey as the father of modern missions. But how many remember the name of John Sutcliff, without whom Carey may never have entered either the Baptist ministry or the Indian mission field?

John Sutcliff was born on August 9, 1752, at Strait Hey, a farm near Todmorden in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Raised by godly parents, he came to personal faith in his teens and encouraged by John Fawcett, was baptised and became a member of Wainsgate Baptist Church, near Hebden Bridge.

Sutcliff’s hunger for spiritual and academic knowledge gave evidence of his suitability to the pastoral ministry. Commended by the church at Wainsgate, Sutcliff entered the Bristol Baptist Academy in 1772. That he walked the entire 200 miles from home to college, gives an idea of his financial circumstances. It was at Bristol that Sutcliff was influenced by Caleb Evans and encountered the writings of Jonathan Edwards. From Edwards, Sutcliff learnt how to combine his commitment to Calvinism with a passion for evangelism and revival.

After gaining preaching experience in Trowbridge, Shrewsbury and Birmingham, Sutcliff was called to the pastorate of Olney, a market town in North Buckinghamshire bordering both Northants and Bedfordshire. His acceptance was somewhat reluctant, but he remained there from 1775 until his death in 1814. He was ordained in 1776, a year after his arrival.

The Baptist cause in Olney dates back to the 1660s. When Sutcliff arrived, the congregation had good numbers (the meeting-house having been enlarged in 1763), but was characterised by division. The church had joined the Northamptonshire Baptist Association, founded in 1765. The evangelical cause in Olney was strong.

In addition to the Baptists, John Newton had come to the parish church in 1764 where William Cowper, hymn writer and poet, became a member. (Newton and Cowper were responsible for the publication, in 1779, of the Olney Hymns.)

In Olney, there was also an evangelical Congregationalist church practising infant baptism.

Cross-denominational relations were surprisingly good for the period. Newton attended Sutcliff’s ordination and when the Northamptonshire Baptist Association held its annual meeting on at least two occasions in the large parish church, Newton was invited to attend and participate. All three churches participated in a shared annual youth service. However, relations between Sutcliff and his congregation were not quite so affable, especially in the early years of Sutcliff’s pastorate when there was friction between minister and congregation.

The Baptist Church, like so many others at the time, held to the doctrine of High Calvinism. Sutcliff preached a more moderated evangelicaI Calvinism. However, he worked hard to unify the church and all of the High Calvinists who had left the congregation before his arrival were restored to membership by 1782.

In 1783 Sutcliff publicly declared his commitment to evangelical Calvinism. This he set out in The First Principles of the Oracles of God, presented in a Plain and Familiar Catechism, For the Use of Children. His views were shared by his two close friends Andrew Fuller and John Ryland.

In the following year these three men Issued the Prayer Call of 1784 (leaflet No 6). Following Fuller’s sermon to the Association, Sutcliff called upon churches to meet and pray monthly for ‘the revival of real religion, and the extension of Christ’s kingdom in the world’. The Prayer Call was taken up not only by Baptist churches in the Association but by churches – Baptist and otherwise – across the land. There can be little doubt that It was this Prayer Call that led to the revival of the Baptist cause in England and the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792.

It was soon after the Prayer Call that Sutcliff was to be influential In the life of William Carey. Carey had been preaching as a layman at both Hackleton and Earls Barton. When the latter considered calling him as their minister, Carey sought the advice of Sutcliff who urged him, out of concern that he be sent into the ministry from a more solidly established work, to become a member of Olney. In 1785 Carey preached before the congregation at Olney, but his preaching was not considered good enough for him to proceed to ordination. Under Sutcliff’s care, Carey’s gifts were nurtured and he preached again the following year, this time with a positive result. Carey was, of course, the first to leave England’s shores under the auspices of the new missionary society.

From the end of the 18th century much of Sutcliff’s time was taken up away from Olney. In places as far afield as Scotland, he promoted and raised funds for the Society. While others went overseas, he, Fuller and Ryland were the ‘ropeholders’.

On the domestic front, Sutcliff did find time however in 1796 to marry one Jane Johnston. They had no children. She was to die just 11 weeks after her husband, her death hurried on no doubt by a broken heart.

In 1798 Sutcliff formed a seminary for missionary and ministerial students. The seminary was in a rented house adjacent to Sutcliff’s own home and over the coming years, a total of over three dozen such students came under Sutcliff’s expert academic and pastoral tutelage. As well as teaching them and providing them with access to ‘one of the finest libraries in the country’, he also gave them practical training. Preaching in local villages was a regular requirement of their duties.

One of the first that Sutcliff trained was Daniel Brunsden who later wrote to Sutcliff from India, giving an eye-witness account of the baptism of Krisha Pal, the Missionary Society’s and Carey’s first convert. What a joy it was to Sutcliff to see his training efforts rewarded and his prayers answered!

In the closing years of his life and ministry, Sutcliff retained an ecumenical outlook. He was an evangelical first and a Baptist second. As well as maintaining a close relationship with Newton and his successors, he also supported, for example, the Bedfordshire Union of Christians, a co-operative venture between Baptists and Congregationalists working together in the common cause of village Gospel preaching. But one of the last public acts of Sutcliff was his presence in London in 1813 when he preached at the annual meeting of the Baptist Missionary Society and attended the inaugural meeting of the Baptist Union.

Sutcliff’s health, never robust, failed him in February 1814. The evidence suggests he had a heart attack and died on June 22. Andrew Fuller preached the funeral address and concluded on a clear evangelistic note. Sutcliff would have approved.

This is part of a written tribute to Sutcliff that Fuller asked Robert Hall of Arnesby to compose:

‘Few men took a deeper interest… in the genera! state of the church and the propagation of the Gospel abroad. The future glory of the Kingdom of God end the best means of promoting it were his favourite topics and usurped a large part of his thoughts and his prayers; nor was he ever more in his element than when he was exerting his powers in devising plans for its extension.’

Rev. David Dewey

Bibliography

Principal source: ‘One Heart and One Soul’, by Michael Haykin, Evangelical Press, 1994.

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Centre for the Nations

 


Roots and Shoots

This is the theme of this series of simple leaflets that we have prepared to further strengthen the rising tide of prayer and action in Carey’s Patch.Written by various local Christians with knowledge of their subject, these leaflets will remind us of what God has raised up in Carey’s Patch through faithful servants in previous generations.Carey’s Patch describes the geographical area comprising Northamptonshire and the surrounding counties in which the Nations Team at Wellingborough is based and from which the gospel was launched to the ends of the earth with a fresh emphasis through William Carey just over 200 years ago.Read about the personalities and events associated with Carey’s Patch.You can either use the menu on the right or go straight to our download page.

Nations Trust
15 Oxford Street
Wellingborough
Northants
NN8 4HY
U.K

Tel/Fax: (+44) 1933 223454

Email: wbteam@nations.org.uk
Nations website

Links

Churches Together in Wellingborough

Churches Together in Northampton

Cowper and Newton Museum, Olney

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Chapter 8

 

LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS AND GENERAL ASSEMBLIES.

There is some obscurity hanging over the origin of Local Associations. That they sprang up during the time of the Commonwealth, and that they rapidly multiplied when once the idea was broached, are facts abundantly attested; but which Association can rightly claim to be the first, there is no small difficulty in determining. The Confession of the Seven Churches in London, published in 1644, hints at the idea of association in the forty-seventh article:

“Although the particular congregations be distinct and several bodies, every one as a compact and knit city within itself; yet are they all to walk by one rule of truth; so also they, (by all means convenient), are to have counsel and help one of another, if necessity require it, as members of one body, in the common faith, under Christ their head.”

But how far this “counsel and help” led to united action, does not appear. Grantham’s declaration, in his Christianismus Primitivus, published long after Local Associations and General Assemblies had become common among at least one section of the Baptist denomination, exactly expresses the purpose which was contemplated in establishing them.\

“The mutual consultation of many churches together, shows not the superiority of churches one above another; but only the brotherly interest which they have in the strength of each other, and the duty which lieth upon the churches one to help another in their difficulties. And, doubtless, her strength thus united is the most powerful means under heaven (through the virtue of Christ’s promise to be with them as His Church), to stop the current of heresy, and to keep the churches in unity both in doctrine and manners.”

The special cause which led, some half dozen or more years after the publication of the Confession of the Seven Churches, to a general desire for greater union among the Particular Baptists, was the earnest letter received by the London churches from the churches in Ireland. In this letter they say, “that their beloved and faithful brother, John Vernon, the bearer of the letter,” will, through God’s blessing,

“be suddenly with you. … His conversation hath been in zeal and faithfulness; the Lord having put it into the hearts of all his congregations in Ireland to have a more revived correspondence with each other by letter and loving epistles, in which practice we found great advantage, not only by weakening Satan’s suggestions and jealousies, but it hath brought a closer union and knitting of heart; and, which is not an inferior consideration, we have hereby been enabled feelingly and knowingly to present each other’s wants and conditions before our God. In the same manner, we shall be enabled to answer our duty towards you, and you towards us, and so bear each other’s burdens, and fulfil the law of Christ in our very near relation. We hereby earnestly request the same brotherly correspondence with you and from you; and, by your means, with all the rest of the churches in England, Scotland, and Wales, whom we trust will be provoked to the same things, which we hope may be mutually obtained once in three months.”

The same letter also asks for “a perfect account of the churches of Christ owned in communion with them;” and offers “one request more, if it hath not been lately practised;” namely,

“that they would send two or more faithful brethren, well acquainted with the discipline and order of the Lord’s house, able to speak seasonable words, suited to the necessities of the people, to visit, comfort, and confirm all the flock of our Lord Jesus, that are, or have given up, their names to be under His rule and government in England, Scotland, and Wales.”

This letter produced a powerful effect upon the churches in London. After a day of fasting and prayer, they agreed to adopt its suggestions. Inquiries were at once made of the several churches in different parts of the island; but we have no means of ascertaining the result. The letter sent to the Welsh churches has been preserved; and from this we learn, that “the several churches of Christ in London,” as the senders describe themselves, were anxious “to obtain a full account of all the churches in England, Scotland, and Wales;” and for the purpose of gathering this information from the Principality, they urge their Welsh churches to visit the several weak and scattered brethren in their part, and near adjacent, that it may be known “what churches and societies they at London may groundedly communicate with.”

Although there is no extant record of the result of this correspondence, it is a fair inference, that the churches which mooted the question of union by letter and visits, and set the example of it, speedily adopted other means of periodical association with one another. If only this inference could be established, it would entitle the London Baptist Association to claim the foremost place among the many Associations that have since been formed in England, Scotland, and Wales.

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Byepaths in Baptist History

 

BYE-PATHS IN BAPTIST HISTORY

A COLLECTION OF INTERESTING, INSTRUCTIVE AND CURIOUS INFORMATION NOT GENERALLY KNOWN
Concerning the Baptist Denomination

~~~~~~
BY J. J. GOADBY
~~~~~~

1871

PREFACE

CHAPTER I
Early Traces of Baptists in Britain

CHAPTER II
Ancient Baptist Churches in England

CHAPTER III
Origin of the Baptist Denomination

CHAPTER IV
The Baptists and Liberty of Conscience

CHAPTER V
Persecutions of Baptists in England

CHAPTER VI
Baptist Confessions of Faith

CHAPTER VII
Public Disputations on Baptism

CHAPTER VIII
Local Associations and General Assemblies

CHAPTER IX
Officers of Baptist Churches

CHAPTER X
Church Discipline

CHAPTER XI
Customs of the Early English Baptists

CHAPTER XII
About Singing

CHAPTER XIII
Miscellaneous

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Preface

 

        The footpaths of any country may be expected to yield some glimpses, both of the land and the people, not obtainable along the dusty and well-beaten highway. It is sincerely hoped that this may prove equally true of these Byp-paths in Baptist History. That they occasionally cross the main roads, and now and then run parallel with them, is no more than other “Bye-paths” have done before them; but care has been taken throughout to preserve, as much as possible, their distinctive character.         In the sketches thus given of the Early English Baptists, no attempt has been made to diminish their excellencies or to gloss over their defects. Their early and persistent advocacy of the broadest religious freedom (an honour of which none will now seek to rob them); their zealous regard for Scirptural precedents; and their willingness to sacrifice all things in the maintenance of what they deemed to be the truth, commend them to the warmest sympathies and loving regard of their descendants. Nor should their disputatious and angular character; their literal obserance of customs now fallen into desuetude, and their vigorous and inquisitorial discipline, be judged apart from the ferment of the age in which they lived, their natural reation against the commandments of men, and their steadfast desire that those who associated with them should live unblamable and unreprovable before God.         The author tenders his hearty thanks to the gentlement who have kindly rendered him help in the preparation of this volume. He desires especially to mention Rev. W. Robinson, of Cambridge, who very cheerfully examined for him the Baker MSS. in the University Library of Cambridge; Rev. J.C. Means, London, who permitted him the free use of MS. Proceedings of the General Baptist Assemblies; Rev. R. Wallace, Tottenham, for the earliest extant Minute Book of the Particular Baptist Board; and Dr. Underhill, London; Dr. Underwood, Chilwell College; Revs. W. Urwick, Hatherlow; J. Jenkyn Brown, Birmingham; R. Harris, Esq., Leicester; J. Barlow, Esq., Accrington; T. Bayley, Esq., Lenton Abbey, Nottingham; and many other friends, for their generous loan of rare and valuable books.

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